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Index: E

element boxes: 7.1. Basic Element Boxes
8.1. Basic Boxes
element clipping: Element clipping
element selectors: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
classification of: 2.9. Classification of Elements
floated (see floated elements)
overlapping, altering: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
styling common: 11.2.4. Styling Common Elements
visibility of: 9.1.5. Element Visibility
elevation property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
em box: 5.3. Font Size
em-height (em): em and ex units
em length value: 5.3.3. Percentages and Sizes
em square: 5.3. Font Size
embedded style sheets: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
ex-height (ex): em and ex units
Extensible Markup Language (see XML)
external style sheets: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
creating: 11.1.1. Case 1: Consistent Look and Feel
with @import directive: 1.4.3. The @import Directive
with LINK element: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
extra space around elements, adding: 7.2. Margins or Padding?
7.2. Margins or Padding?
(see also margins)

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BODY {background-image: url(bg23.gif);background-repeat: repeat-x;background-position: center;}
Figure 6-50

Figure 6-50. Centering with a horizontal repeat

Therefore, setting a large image in the center of theBODY and then letting it repeat will cause it totile in all four directions: up, down, left, andright. The only difference background-positionmakes is in where the tiling starts. Figure 6-51shows the difference between tiling from the center of the | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

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the line height of an element. (In fact, the only properties that can change the distance between lines containing only text are line-height, font-size, and vertical-align.)

However, all of this is true only for the top and bottom sides of inline elements; the left and right sides are a different story altogether. We'll start by considering the simple case of a small inline element within a single line, as depicted in Figure 7-22.

By defining a set of programming language independent interfaces that allow the accessing and mutation of XML documents, the W3C made it easier for programmers to deal with XML. Not only does XML address the need for a standard information encoding and storage format, it also allows programmers a standard way to use that information. SAX is a very low level API, but it is more than what has been available before it. DOM is a higher level API that even provides a default object model for all XML documents (saving time in creating one from scratch if you are using data is document data).

SAX, DOM and XML are very developer friendly because developers are going to decide whether this technology will be adopted by the majority and become a successful effort towards the goal of interoperable, platform, and device independent computing.

XML is web enabled

XML is derived from SGML, and so was HTML. So in essence, the current infrastructure available today to deal with HTML content can be re-used to work with XML. This is a very big advantage towards delivering XML content using the software and networking infrastructure already in place today. This should be a big plus in considering XML for use in any of your projects, because XML naturally lends itself to being used over the web.

that's quite true. However, consider the following, depicted inFigure 8-19:

igure 8-19. Wider children through negative margins

Yes, the child element is wider than its parent! This ismathematically correct: 10 +50 = 400. Even though this leads to a child elementsticking out of its parent, technically the specificationhasn't been violated, because the values of the sevenproperties add up to the required total. It's a semantic dodge, UL UL UL {list-style-type: square;}

If this is so, and it's likely that it will be, you will haveto declare your own styles to overcome the UA's styles.Inheritance won't be enough in such a case.

7.7.2. List Item Images

Sometimes, of course, a pregeneratedbullet just won't do. Instead, you feel the need to use an

By default, a single color value will be applied to all four sides,as with the paragraph in the previous example. On the other hand, ifyou supply four color values, you can get a different color on eachside. Any type of color value can be used, from named colors tohexadecimal and RGB values.

Figure 7-43 shows us varying shades of gray forborders. Thanks to the grayscale nature of this book, I've beensticking mostly to shades of gray, but any color could be used. Ifyou wanted an H1 with a red, green, blue, and