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Index: B

background attachment: 6.2.5. Getting Attached
background-attachment property: 6.2.5. Getting Attached
background-color property: 6.1.2. Background Color
inheritance and: 6.1.2. Background Color
background-image property: 6.2.1. Background Images
background-position property: 6.2.3. Background Positioning
background property: 6.2.6. Bringing It All Together
background-repeat property: 6.2.2. Repeats with Direction
backgrounds: 6. Colors and Backgrounds
colors: 6.1.2. Background Color
importance of declaring foreground color with: 6.1.4. Good Practices
complex: 6.2. Complex Backgrounds
floated elements and: Backgrounds and floats
images as: 6.2. Complex Backgrounds
specifying with background color: Good background practices
Netscape Navigator 4.x, correcting placement: 11.2.5. Getting Full Content Backgrounds in Navigator
padding and: 7.2. Margins or Padding?
perfect alignment of: Interesting effects
positioning: 6.2.3. Background Positioning
scrolling vs. fixed: 6.2.5. Getting Attached
backward accessibility: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
baseline alignment: Baseline alignment
\:before pseudo-element: Miscellaneous pseudo-elements and pseudo-classes
generated content: 10.4. Generated Content
blank space around elements (see margins)
blinking text: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
block-level elements: 2.9. Classification of Elements
8.2. Block-Level Elements
auto value: Using auto
collapsing vertical margins: Collapsing vertical margins
floated elements and: 8.3. Floated Elements
height: Height
horizontal formatting: 8.2.2. Horizontal Formatting
simplest case for doing so:

H1 {margin-bottom: 0;}P {margin-top: 0;}

This is, after all, one correct way to eliminate the space betweensucceeding elements. Navigator 4.x, however, will display theelements with the usual blank line between them, as you can see inFigure 7-26. This is because it's adding thezero values to its own default margins.

horizontal properties: Horizontal properties
list items: 8.2.3. List Items
margins and, caution with: 7.3.6. Negative Margin Values
negative margins: Negative margins
replaced: 8.2.4. Block-Level Replaced Elements
vertical formatting: 8.2.1. Vertical Formatting
BODY attributes: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
replacing with color property: BODY attributes
bold text: 5.2.2. Getting Bolder
preserving with Netscape Navigator 4.x: 11.2.7. Preserving Boldness
setting color: 6.1.1. Foreground Colors
border-bottom property: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
border-bottom-width property: 7.4.2. Border Widths
border-color property: Affecting borders
7.4.3. Border Colors
border-left property: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
border-left-width property: 7.4.2. Border Widths
border property: Setting borders as quickly as possible
border-right property: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
border-right-width property: 7.4.2. Border Widths
border-style property[border style property: 7.4.1. Borders with Style
border-top property: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
border-top-width property: 7.4.2. Border Widths
border-width property: 7.4.2. Border Widths
borders: 7.4. Borders
color: 7.4.3. Border Colors
replication: 7.4.3. Border Colors
setting: Affecting borders
inline elements and: 7.4.5. Borders and Inline Elements
multiple styles: Multiple styles
new properties with CSS2: 10.6. Borders
width: 7.4.2. Border Widths
for individual sides: 7.4.2. Border Widths
keywords for: 7.4.2. Border Widths
none, setting to: No border at all
replication: 7.4.2. Border Widths
bottom property: 9.1.2. Side Offsets
box properties: 7.4.5. Borders and Inline Elements
7.4.6. Borders: Known Issues
adding to
inline elements: Adding box properties
inline replaced elements: Adding box properties
appearance and: 10.5. Adapting to the Environment
background images and: 6.2.1. Background Images
background property and: 6.2.6. Bringing It All Together
backward accessibility for: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
cursor shape: 10.5.1. Cursors
environment and: 10.5. Adapting to the Environment
important rules and: 2.7.2. Importance
inheritance and: 2.6.1. Limitations of Inheritance
negative background positions and: Length values
negative margins, support for: 7.3.6. Negative Margin Values
negative padding and: 7.5. Padding
points/pixels, treatment of: 5.3.5. Using Length Units
speech-synthesis: 1.1.1. What a Mess
1.1.1. What a Mess
10.8.2. The Spoken Word
text justification and: Aligning text
underlining, turning off in: Weird decorations
whitespace, handling in: Handling whitespace
bullets: 7.7. Lists
8.2.3. List Items
fallback for: 7.7.2. List Item Images
images used as: 7.7.2. List Item Images
position of: 7.7.3. List Item Positions

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text is not part of another line. It just appears that way when there isn't any other text around. Consider Figure 4-40, in which some vertically aligned text appears in the middle of a paragraph.

Figure 4-40

Figure 4-40. Percentage alignments can affect the height of a line

Of course, this sort of thing can lead to some fun visual effects, as we see in Figure 4-41:

SUB {vertical-align: -100%;}
SUP {vertical-align: 100%;}

XML documents may be stored in files or databases. When stored in files, XML documents are simply plain text files with tags (and possibly DTDs). It is very easy to save your XML documents to a text file and pass the text file around to other machines, platforms and programs (as long as they can understand the data). In the worst case scenario, XML documents (files) can be viewed in a text editor on just about any platform.

XML documents are also naturally committed to a database (relational or object) or any other kind of XML document store. There are commercial products available which allow you to save XML documents to an XML storage layer (which is not a database per se), like Datachannel's XStore and ODI's eXcelon. These XML store solutions are quite expensive ($10,000 to $20,000 range).

XML documents are also quite naturally retrieved from a persistence layer (databases, file systems, XML stores). This lends XML to be used in real world applications where the information being used by different parts of a system is the most important thing.

XML is platform independent, textual information

won't affect the placement of the origin image.

These properties describe an offset from the nearest side of thecontaining block (thus the term side-offset ).For example, top describes how far the outer top edgeof the positioned element should be placed from the top of itscontaining block. In the case of top, positivevalues move the top edge of the positioned elementdownward, while negative values move it