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Index: A

absolute font sizes: 5.3.1. Absolute Sizes
absolute length units: 3.2.1. Absolute Length Units
absolute positioning: 9.3. Absolute Positioning
absolute URLs: 3.4. URLs
\:active pseudo-class: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
support for: 2.4.1.1. Real-world issues
adjacent-sibling selectors: 10.2.1.3. Adjacent-sibling selector
11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
\:after pseudo-element: 10.2.3.5. Miscellaneous pseudo-elements and pseudo-classes
generated content: 10.4. Generated Content
aligning text: 4.1.1.2. Aligning text
4.1.3. Vertical Alignment
ALINK attribute: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
alternate style sheets: 1.4.1.1. LINK attributes
ancestors: 2.5. Structure
anchors: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
angle values: 3.5. CSS2 Units
Arabic, text alignment default: 4.1.1.2. Aligning text
asterisk (*) in universal selector: 10.2.1.1. Universal selector
attribute matching: 10.2.2.1. Attribute matching
attribute selectors: 10.2.2. Attribute Selectors
aural media: 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope
aural style sheets: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
units for: 3.5. CSS2 Units
auto value, block-level elements: 8.2.2.2. Using auto
automatic numbering: 10.4.1. Automatic Numbering
azimuth property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word


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Copyright © 2002 O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. taken the value gray from the foreground color ofthe paragraph itself. The second paragraph, on the other hand, has ablack border because that color was explicitly assigned usingborder-color.

While it's nice to haveshorthand properties like border-color andborder-style, they aren't always a whole lotof help. For example, you might want to set all H1elements to have a thick, gray, solid border, but only along the

XML documents are also quite naturally retrieved from a persistence layer (databases, file systems, XML stores). This lends XML to be used in real world applications where the information being used by different parts of a system is the most important thing.

XML is platform independent, textual information

Information in an XML document is stored in plain-text. This might seem like a restriction if were thinking of embedding binary information in an XML document. There are several advantages to keeping things plain text. First, it is easy to write parsers and all other XML enabling technology on different platforms. Second, it makes everything very interoperable by staying with the lowest common denominator approach. This is the whole reason the web is so successful despite all its flaws. By accepting and sending information in plain text format, programs running on disparate platforms can communicate with each other. This also makes it easy to integrate new programs on top of older ones (without rewriting the old programs), by simply making the interface between the new and old program use XML.

For example, if you have an address book document stored in an XML file, created on a Mac, that you would like to share with someone who has a PC, you can simply email them the plain text address book XML document. This cant be done with binary encoded information which is totally platform (and program) dependent.

4. A floating element's top may not be higher thanthe inner top of its parent.

Another simple rule. This one keeps floating elements from floatingall the way to the top of the document. The correct behavior isillustrated in Figure 8-33.

Figure 8-33

Figure 8-33. Unlike balloons, floated elements can't float upward

5. A floating element's top may not be higher thanthe top of any earlier floating or block-level element.

In your application layer, you can create many interesting Java applications. The apps can run on the server side or client side or both. They may have graphical user interfaces or they may be web based. When I use the word application or app in this chapter, I don't exclude Java applets; I mean application (or app) in the broad sense of the word, i.e., I mean it to describe a software system written in Java that solves a real-world problem.

3 Main categories

There are many different types of software that you can write in Java to make use of XML. I have created 3 major categories to describe certain types of apps (that are currently popular) that are really well suited to the use of XML. This is by no means a comprehensive set of categories; you can create your own, and many more major categories will emerge as XML becomes more popular.

Client side - Graphical Java Applications