Book HomeCascading Style Sheets: The Definitive GuideSearch this book Wednesday 13th of December 2017 08:00:44 PM


Our look is the result of reader comments, our own experimentation, and feedback from distribution channels. Distinctive covers complement our distinctive approach to technical topics, </DIV> <P> The next paragraph. </P>

Figure 8-23

Figure 8-23. The effects of a negative bottom margin

What's really happening in Figure 8-23 is that the elements following the DIV are placed according to the location of the bottom of the DIV. As we can see, the end of the DIV is actually above the visual bottom of its breathing personality and life into potentially dry subjects.

The animals on the cover of Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide are salmon (salmonidae), which is a family of fish consisting of many different species. Two of the most common salmon are the Pacific salmon and the Atlantic salmon.

Pacific salmon live in the northern Pacific Ocean off the coasts of North America and Asia. There are five subspecies of Pacific salmon, with an average weight of ten to thirty pounds and an average age of five years. Pacific salmon are born in the fall in freshwater stream gravel beds, where they incubate through the winter and emerge as inch-long fish. They live for a year or two in the stream or lake, and then head downstream to the ocean. There they live for a few years, before heading back upstream to their exact place of birth to spawn and then die.

Atlantic salmon live in the northern Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of North America and Europe. There are many subspecies of Atlantic salmon, including the trout and the char. Their typical size is ten to twenty pounds, with an average age of seven to ten years. The Atlantic salmon family has a similar life cycle to its Pacific cousins, from freshwater gravel beds to the sea. A major difference between the two, however, is that the Atlantic salmon does not die after spawning; it can return to the ocean and then return to the stream to spawn again, usually two or three times.

Salmon, in general, are graceful, silver-colored fish with spots on their backs and fins. Their diet consists of plankton, insect larvae, shrimp, and smaller fish. Their unusually keen sense of smell is thought to be what helps them navigate from the ocean back to the exact spot of their birth, upstream past many obstacles. Some species of salmon remain landlocked, living their entire lives in freshwater.

Salmon are an important part of the ecosystem, as their decaying bodies provide fertilizer for streambeds. Their numbers have been dwindling over the years, however. Factors in the declining salmon population include habitat destruction, fishing, dams that block spawning paths, acid rain, droughts, floods, and pollution.

Melanie Wang was the production editor and copyeditor for Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide. Madeleine Newell was the proofreader, and Jeff Holcomb and Colleen Gorman provided quality control. Maeve O'Meara, Mary Sheehan, Emily Quill, Ann Schirmer, Jeff Holcomb, and Colleen Gorman provided production support. Brenda Miller wrote the index.

Ellie Volckhausen designed the cover of this book, based on a series design by Edie Freedman. The cover image is a 19th-century engraving from the Dover Pictorial Archive. Emma Colby produced the cover layout with QuarkXPress 3.32 using Adobe's ITC Garamond font.

Alicia Cech designed the interior layout based on a series design by Nancy Priest. Mike Sierra implemented the design in FrameMaker 5.5.6. The text and heading fonts are ITC Garamond Light and Garamond Book. The illustrations that appear in the book were produced by Robert Romano and Rhon Porter using Macromedia FreeHand 8 and Adobe Photoshop 5. This colophon was written by Nicole Arigo.

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For example, to float an image to the right, you could use this markup:

<IMG SRC="b5.gif" style="float: right;" alt="section b5">

As Figure 7-63 makes clear, the image "floats" to the right side of the browser window. This is just what we expect. However, some interesting issues are raised in the course of floating elements in CSS. :lang

On a completely different note is the pseudo-class :lang, which is used to apply styles to elements with matching languages. Let's say you want all paragraphs in English to be black on white, and all paragraphs in All of the advantages of XML outlined so far all make interoperability possible. This is one of the most important requirements for XML, to enable disparate systems to be able to share information easily.

By taking the lowest common denominator approach, by being web enabled, protocol independent, network independent, platform independent and extensible, XML makes it possible for new systems and old systems (that are all different) to communicate with each other. Encoding information in plain text with tags is better than using propietary and platform dependent binary formats.


XML provides solutions for problems that have existed for the past 20 years. With most applications and software services using the Internet as a target platform for deployment, XML could not have come at a better time. With the web becoming so popular, a new paradigm of computing has emerged for which XML supplies one of the most important pieces, platform, vendor and application neutral data. Regardless of the programming language used to process XML, it will enable this new networked computing world.

Java is also a key component of this new paradigm. On the server side, by working with XML, it can more naturally integrate legacy systems and services. With XML, Java can do what it does best, work very well on the server side, and web (and Internet) enable software systems.



Sets an image to be the background pattern. Depending on the value of background-repeat, the background image may tile indefinitely, or only along one axis, or not at all, and the starting position of the tiling is dependent on the value of background-position.


Something else to watch out for is Navigator 4's handling of values for color that it doesn't recognize. If Navigator 4 encounters an unknown word (such as invalidValue) somehow, through mechanisms known only to itself, it actually arrives at and uses a color. It doesn't do so randomly, exactly, but the effect is practically the same. For example, invalidValue comes out as a dark blue, and inherit, which is a valid value